How should the Daily Maintenance and Upkeep of the Crane be Done?
maintenance of the crane
How should the Daily Maintenance of the Crane be Done?
Crane as a special equipment, is in a certain range of vertical lifting and horizontal lifting of heavy loads of multi-action lifting machinery, is in modern economic construction, social production activities to improve material handling equipment, improve labor productivity indispensable logistics handling equipment, has been widely used in various fields of economic construction.
Cranes are generally driven by a driving mechanism (lifting mechanism – making items move up and down; Operating mechanism – to move the crane; Rotary mechanism and amplitude changing mechanism – make the item move horizontally), plus metal mechanism (steel structure), control control, electrical system, power device and necessary auxiliary device combination, this machinery is mainly through the lifting hook or other lifting gear to take material, lift, drop, move or unload into the item, can also lift loose materials and liquid materials, the mechanism is often in the start, the working state of braking and positive and negative direction operation, its working mode is intermittent, cyclic, repetitive operation.
Cranes are highly dangerous during use, mainly because of their complex mechanisms, large structures, wide operating spaces, and variable loads. In order to better implement the “Regulations” and avoid unnecessary equipment, major accidents, and personal casualties, it is necessary to have unified supervision by a competent department to strengthen the professionalization and safety of crane use management. Among the many mechanical accidents of cranes, one of the important factors is that staff members violate operating procedures and the equipment lacks effective maintenance. In the daily use of cranes, some units have a weak awareness of safety, focus on use and neglect maintenance, and even operate with mechanical diseases for a long time, which brings certain safety hazards to the operation and use of cranes. Therefore, crane maintenance and repair work cannot be ignored.
So what aspects of cranes require maintenance and repair?
1. Maintenance and repair of transmission mechanism
Check whether the fixed device of the wire rope meets the requirements, and check whether there is corrosion, broken wire, loose strand, broken strand, bending, kinking, wear, flattening and other phenomena, such as exceeding the relevant provisions must be replaced immediately; Check whether the hook has defects such as fracture wear, peeling, cracking, torsion deformation, increased opening degree, and whether the related pin and sleeve have serious wear; Check whether the pulley is equipped with anti-stripping groove device, whether the pulley rotates flexibly, whether the pulley groove and wheel rim have broken edges, wear, cracks and other conditions.
2. Maintenance and repair of brake device
Check whether there is no noise when the mechanism is running and whether the heat dissipation is good; Check and adjust the clearance between brake shoe and brake wheel; Check the brake spring, pull rod for fatigue deformation, crack and other defects; Check the lubrication of the transmission, reducer, external gear and other parts and whether the hydraulic oil leaks; Often check whether the oil filter is blocked, and whether the adjustment value of the safety valve changes after use; The friction surface of the brake of each mechanism should not have dirt, and in case of dirt, it must be washed off with gasoline or thinner; Check whether the tread and axle of the wheel have fatigue cracks, whether the wear of the wheel tread and axle exceed the standard, and whether the gnawing of the rail occurs during operation.
3. Maintenance and repair of metal structure
During the use period, it is necessary to regularly check whether the main stress components have overall or local fatigue deformation, loosening, instability, serious corrosion, cracks, damage and other phenomena, and try to prevent deformation and collision damage of components during transportation; Check the connection bolts or riveted solid, especially the vibration parts are loose, defects and other defects; Check the structural connection and weld for obvious deformation and cracking.
4. Electrical system maintenance and repair
Clean the dust and dirt on the electrical equipment in time to ensure that the distribution box, control box, each part of the brush and its contact surface are clean; Regularly check all cables and wires for damage, if found damaged parts should be bandaged or replaced in time; Ensure that the contact of the travel switch of each safety device opens and closes reliably, and the contact arc pit should be polished in time; Check whether the crane power supply and each mechanism is equipped with short circuit protection, loss of voltage protection, zero protection, overcurrent protection and special crane overspeed, loss of magnetic protection.
5. Maintenance and repair of safety protection devices
Check whether the installation of the crane overload protection device, buffer, moment limiter, limit position limiter, anti-backward tipping device, wind protection device, protective device meets the design requirements, whether the operation of these devices is sensitive and reliable, whether the alarm signal can be issued in time if the specification is exceeded, whether the power source can be automatically cut off to the dangerous direction.
How to do crane maintenance
In order to ensure the safe operation of the crane, the user should check it regularly according to the daily inspection, weekly inspection, monthly inspection, annual inspection and other ways, and deal with abnormal situations in time. After the crane is operated for 1000h, its electrical system and mechanical parts should be repaired. After 4000h operation of the crane, its electrical system and mechanical parts should be repaired; After 8000h of crane operation, its electrical system and mechanical components should be overhauled. Mechanical safety technical inspectors can carry out a comprehensive intuitive diagnosis of lifting machinery through the senses to see, hear, smell, ask, and touch to obtain the required information and data, so as to determine the fault location and fault nature.
Safety is the eternal theme, in the actual operation, you must make the safety of this pass, strictly implement the operating procedures. It is necessary to accurately grasp the basic situation of each crane, the sliding distance of the cart and the car after the power failure, the rise and fall height of the small hook and the big hook after the power failure, and the different working environment, and carry out the corresponding operation.
On the one hand, the operator should carefully abide by the safety operation procedures and relevant safety systems, so as to achieve safe production and no mechanical accidents; On the other hand, the maintenance personnel should carefully implement the maintenance procedures, and do a good job at any time of cleaning, lubrication, corrosion prevention, fastening, adjustment, replacement, etc., so that the crane equipment is often in a good technical state to ensure that the work performance indicators meet the specified requirements.