rail fastener performance

rail fastener performance

What Properties should Rail Fasteners Have?

The connection between the rail and the sleeper is realized by the intermediate connecting parts. The intermediate connection parts are also called fasteners, whose function is to effectively maintain the reliable connection between the rail and the sleeper for a long time, prevent the rail from moving relative to the sleeper, and give full play to its cushioning and damping performance under the dynamic action, delaying the accumulation of residual deformation of the track.

With the application of concrete sleepers and wide sleepers, especially the application of ballastless tracks, higher requirements have been put forward for rail fasteners.

Concrete sleepers are made from a wide range of sources and have good track stability. They can meet the requirements of high-speed and large-traffic volumes of trunk railways and have a long service life. However, they are prone to failure due to cracks, are heavy in mass, difficult to replace, and have poor elasticity. Concrete wide sleepers are a new important development in the under-rail foundation in my country after the large-scale promotion of concrete sleepers.

In addition to connecting rails and sleepers, adjusting rail gauge and super-high functions, fasteners must also have sufficient longitudinal resistance to prevent rail crawling and reasonable elasticity to reduce vibration of the wheel-rail system.

Sufficient buckling pressure

This is an important guarantee for the connection between rails and sleepers. Sufficient buckling force means that when the rail bends and rotates, the rail bottom will not be displaced longitudinally along the pad, that is, the longitudinal resistance of the fastener is required to be greater than the longitudinal resistance of the track bed. Of course, the buckling pressure should not be too high, otherwise the elasticity of the fastener will drop sharply and the service life of the fastener will be affected.

Appropriate flexibility

Proper elasticity can reduce the load pressure on the track bed, reduce unsprung vibration acceleration, and extend the service life of components. The elasticity of fasteners is mainly provided by components such as rubber pads and elastic strips. For concrete sleeper lines, the elasticity of concrete sleepers is much worse than that of wooden sleepers. Therefore, the elasticity of concrete sleeper lines in the vertical and horizontal directions is mainly provided by fasteners.

Has a certain track gauge and horizontal adjustment amount

In order to adapt to changes in rail surface elevation and track gauge, rail fasteners should have sufficient adjustment in all directions. Especially in concrete sleeper tracks and ballastless tracks, the adjustment amount of rail fasteners is more prominent.

In addition, rail fasteners should be simple in structure, easy to install and disassemble, and have sufficient durability and insulation properties.

As an important component connecting rails and supporting structures, rail fasteners have the same history as railway development. From the original wooden sleeper spike fastener to the concrete sleeper elastic fastener, every innovation is a concrete manifestation of railway development.

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