The key equipment of the automated warehouse — stacker crane

stacker crane

stacker crane

With the advent of the new era, the national economy is also constantly developing, which prompts more and more enterprises to choose more modern logistics management. Among them, the automatic three-dimensional warehouse stacking crane(referred to as the stacker), as the core equipment of the automated storage system, has stable and reliable performance and good handling capacity in and out of the warehouse and can meet the needs of users to the greatest extent. The application of the stacker crane in the market demand continues to expand.

Functions of the stacker crane:

A stacking crane refers to a special crane that uses a fork or a string rod as a pick-up device to fork, carry and stack in warehouses, workshops, etc., or pick and place unit goods from high-rise shelves. Stacker is a kind of storage equipment, which can improve space utilization and save economic costs to the greatest extent.

The stacker mainly has three directions of movement:

Walking: The stacker moves back and forth along the roadway under the drive of the motor.

Lifting: The lifting platform moves up and down along the main column under the drive of the motor.

Fork picking: the fork is driven by the motor to load the goods at the entry and exit station or the cargo position.

The following figure is a schematic diagram of a typical stacker structure:

The lower beam

The overall support seat of the stacker, the dynamic load, and the static load generated during the operation of the stacker are transferred from the chassis to the walking wheels.

Walking mechanism

  • In order to maintain the stable operation of the stacker, the traveling mechanism adopts frequency conversion to control the AC motor, and the traveling wheel is taken away by the reducer to walk forward and backward along the ground guide rail
  • Each traveling wheel is equipped with side guide wheels to keep the stacker stable. There is no special support for the traveling wheel set. When the traveling wheels or side guide wheels are loose, the support should be able to support the chassis on the ground guide rail.

Lifting mechanism

  • Variable speed type, the AC motor is controlled by frequency conversion, and the load table is driven up or down through the reducer. The selected lifting motors are equipped with safety electromagnetic brakes to keep the loading platform at a certain height stably.
  • The lifting mechanism includes sprockets, guide wheels, chain tension adjustment devices, or cable pulleys and cable tension adjustment devices.


  • The stacker crane is a double-mast type, but its masts are designed with a high strength-to-weight ratio to lower the center of gravity to maintain stable operation.
  • The top of the mast is equipped with side guide wheels, which support and guide along the upper rail when walking and improve its stability.
  • Ladders for maintenance are to be provided along the entire length of the mast for inspection of the mast fixing facilities.

Upper beam

The upper beam is on the top of the double column, together with the lower beam and the double column form a stable frame structure, and the upper guide wheel can prevent the stacker from deviating from the upper track.

Lifting cargo platform

The loading platform is located in the middle of the double columns, and the lifting motor drives the loading platform is not only equipped with cargo over-length, over-width, and over-height detectors but also a virtual reality detector to prevent out-of-tolerance or double storage of goods.


The fork mechanism is installed on the loading platform. The device includes four-section forks and auxiliary follower and guide devices. The transmission device includes gears, racks, sprockets, chains, etc.; to ensure smooth forking of the goods and prevent collision destruction.

The fork motor is a 4-pole asynchronous motor with a brake device(electromagnetic structure), which meets the IP54 protection standard. The motor is controlled by a frequency converter.

The lower track

Also known as ground rail, generally use the steel rail, fixed in the roadway of the stacker with anchor expansion bolts, and the stacker runs along the lower track. The shock-absorbing material between the lower trackpad and the track is filled to reduce noise and run smoothly.

The upper track

Also known as the sky rail, it is installed on the lower part of the beam on the shelf to guide the operation of the stacker. The upper track connected as a whole can fully guarantee the smooth operation of the stacker.

Rubber buffer stoppers are installed at both ends of the track to prevent the stacker from derailing.

(Glory Rail can supply the steel crane rail, crane rail clips, H beam steel, and rubber buffer stoppers for the upper and lower track construction. )

Power rail

Located at the lower part of the shelf in the aisle of the stacker crane, it supplies the power supply for the operation of the stacker. For the sake of safety, the sliding contact line of generally used.

Control panel on the stacker

Installed on the stacker, built-in PLC, frequency converter, power supply, electromagnetic switch, and other components. The top panel is a touchscreen operation, which replaces the original operation buttons, keys, and selection switches. There is a standing position directly in front of the control panel, which is convenient for manual debugging of the stacker.

Features of the stacker:

  1. Improve warehouse utilization

The stacker itself is small in size and can operate in aisles with a small width. It is also suitable for high-rise shelf operations and can improve the utilization rate of the warehouse.

  1. High operating efficiency

The stacker is a special equipment for the warehouse. It has a high speed of handling and storage and retrieval of goods, and completes the operation of entering and exiting the warehouse in a short time.

3.Good stability

The stacker has high reliability and good stability when working.

  1. High degree of automation

The stacker can be controlled remotely and does not require manual operation throughout the process, so it has a high degree of automation and is easy to manage.

To sum up, the stacker equipment plays a very important role in the automated warehouse, and the demand in the market is increasing, and it is an indispensable equipment for the automated warehouse. Due to the progress of the times, the emergence of various emerging technologies has promoted the development of the three-dimensional warehouse in a more intelligent direction, and the performance and efficiency of the stacker have been further improved. Finally, the company can choose the handling equipment suitable for its own products according to its actual needs.