crane operating structure

crane operating structure

Crane Operating Structure

The crane mainly includes lifting mechanism, operating mechanism, amplitude changing mechanism, rotating mechanism and metal structure. Lifting mechanism is the basic working mechanism of the crane, mostly composed of hanging system and winch, but also through the hydraulic system lifting heavy objects. The operating mechanism is used to vertically move heavy objects horizontally or adjust the working position of the crane, which is generally composed of a motor, a reducer, a brake and a wheel.

Crane operating mechanism generally only four active and driven wheels, if the weight is very large, often increase the wheel to reduce the wheel pressure; When there are more than four wheels, the articulated equalizing frame device must be used to evenly distribute the load of the crane on each wheel.

The operating mechanism is the mechanism that makes the crane or lifting trolley move horizontally in a straight line. The working operating mechanism is mainly used for horizontal movement of goods, and the non-working operating mechanism is only used to adjust the working position of the crane (trolley). Running on the specially laid track is called rail running mechanism, its outstanding characteristics are large load, small operation force, but the scope of operation is limited by the track; The trackless running mechanism uses tires or tracks, which can walk on ordinary roads, and its good maneuverability expands the selection range of lifting operations.

The metal structure of the bridge is composed of main beam and end beam, which are divided into single main beam bridge and double beam bridge. The single main beam bridge is composed of a single main beam and end beams located on both sides of the span, and the double beam bridge is composed of two main beams and end beams.

The main beam is rigidly connected with the end beam, and both ends of the end beam are equipped with wheels to support the bridge to run on the elevated frame; The main beam is welded with a track for the lifting trolley to run; There are many structural types of bridge main beams, including box structure, four truss structure and open truss structure.

The crane box structure can be divided into the right box double beam, off-track box double beam, off-track box single main beam and so on. The main beam is composed of upper and lower flange plates and vertical web plates on both sides, and the trolley rail is arranged on the center line of the upper flange plate. It is simple in structure and convenient in manufacture, and is suitable for mass production, but its self-weight is large.

The cross sections of the deviated box double beam and the deviated box single main beam are composed of the upper and lower flange plates and the main and auxiliary webs of varying thickness. The trolley rail is arranged above the main web, and the short stiffening plate in the box box can be omitted. The deviated box single main beam is replaced by a wide flange box main beam, which has smaller weight but is more complicated to manufacture. The four-truss structure is composed of four plane trusses to form a closed space structure. The surface of the upper horizontal truss is generally covered with a walking plate, which has light weight and high stiffness. However, compared with other structures, the overall size is large, the manufacturing is more complicated, the fatigue strength is lower, and the production is less.

The fasting truss structure is similar to the deviated box main beam, composed of four steel plates composed of a closed structure, in addition to the main web for the solid I-beam, the remaining three steel plates are cut into many Windows according to the design requirements, forming a fasting truss without inclined bar, the surface of the upper and lower horizontal trusses are covered with walking plates, the crane operating mechanism and electrical equipment are installed in the internal bridge, the weight is light. The overall stiffness is large, which is a more widely used type in China.

Simple beam bridge crane, also known as beam crane, its structure is similar to ordinary bridge crane, lifting weight, span and working speed are smaller; The main beam of the bridge is a simple section beam composed of I-beam or other section steel and plate steel, and a simple trolley is used as a lifting trolley by hand hoist or electric hoist, and the trolley generally runs on the lower flange of the I-beam; The bridge can run along the track on the elevated frame, or it can run along the track suspended under the elevated frame, which is called the suspended beam crane.

The running support device of rail crane and trolley is mainly steel wheel group and track. The wheels contact the top surface of the track with the tread and bear the wheel pressure.

Railway rail is used in the running mechanism of the truck, and special rail for the crane is used when the wheel pressure is large. The rail of the trolley running mechanism is made of square steel or flat steel, which is directly laid on the metal structure.

The wheel group consists of a wheel, a shaft and a bearing box. To prevent the wheels from derailing, a rim is provided to withstand the side forces of the crane. The rim of the wheel has three kinds of double rim, single rim and no rim. General crane trucks mainly use double rim wheels, some heavy lift machine, in addition to the use of double rim wheels but also install horizontal wheels, to reduce the crane skew running rim and track side contact wear. Single-rim wheels (the rim is on the outside of the crane track) are widely used for cranes or trolleys with smaller gauge. If a guide is available, a rimless wheel can be used. In the large crane, in order to reduce the pressure of the wheel, improve the universality of the transmission and supporting parts, and facilitate assembly and maintenance, the wheel group with a balance beam is often used. The running support device of the trackless crane is a tire or track device.

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